Clinical trials are used to determine efficacy, while quasi-experimental studies of effectiveness are conducted. General Systems Theory, which is the theory that the whole can only be understood in terms of the interactions and organization of its components, is the theoretical basis behind family therapy. General systems theory explains that open systems are able to interact with their environment by receiving inputs and discharging outputs. Closed systems, on the other hand, have no exchange with the environment, which can cause disorder and disorganization in a family. Therapy is more likely to involve families that are the former. According to general systems theory, wholeness is the idea that all components of a system are interconnected and therefore all parts can be affected by changes in the system. According to general systems theory, Non-summativity refers to a property of a family. It suggests that the whole is greater than its parts. Therapists therefore view the family as one unit and not as a collection.

Equifinality is a concept that states identical results for all members of a family regardless of where they are placed in the system. Equipotentiality, a general system theory that states that sexually reserved young women who have been molested by their parents become emotionally stable as adults. Homeostasis refers to the tendency for an organization’s older ways of doing things in the face of new changes. How the system manages negative and positive feedback will determine its extent. According to general systems theory, negative feedback is the maintenance of family homeostasis through correcting deviations from the status quo. While positive feedback refers disrupting family homeostasis (e.g. wife gets job, and husband/children have new roles), Although initially designed to treat depression, interpersonal therapy has been extended to other conditions. It acknowledges biology, personality, early experiences, and personality. However, it focuses only on one of four areas of interpersonal Functioning: Grief and role transitions.

Parallel Process occurs when the supervisor (therapist) acts in a similar way to the client toward the therapist. Communication/Interaction Family Therapy is an approach to family therapy focuses on the role of communication and distinguishes between symmetrical and complimentary communication. From the perspective of Communication/Interaction Family Therapy, Double-bind Communication involves conflicting negative injunctions, with one injunction often being expressed verbally and the other non-verbally (e.g., father says “I love you” while spanking child). The message is often received with frustration by the receiver. According to Communication/Interaction Family Therapy, symmetrical communication occurs between equals but may escalate into a competition for control, whereas complimentary communication occurs between participants who are unequal and emphasizes their differences (e.g., parent-child or employee-boss). spokoj wglowie (report-level communication refers to the intended verbal message) is a concept of Communication/Interaction Therapy suggests information is communication implicitly via nonverbal messages, which is also referred to as command-level communication.